Master’s thesis projects
at the University Observatory
Master’s thesis topics of the Extragalactic Astronomy Group
on machine learning, instrumental and observational (Wendelstein) projects,
stars and planets, galaxies, gravitational lensing and cosmology
can be found
1. Instrumentation and observational projects
Neuaufbau des 2,4 m Radioteleskops mit präziser Zielausrichung (26.4.2023)
(Arno Riffeser, email@example.com)
The radio telescope at the University Observatory is used in the astro-master's practical course to measure the rotation of the Milky Way from the Doppler shift of the 21cm hydrogen line.
The new telescope mount should increase the target alignment to 0.1 degrees and recover HI clouds reproducibly. For a large number of measurementsg it shall be be tested if the resolution can be increased by deconvolution of a Gaussian broadening. can be increased. Good Python knowledge is desirable.
With the upcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its precursor
telescopes, radio astronomy is undergoing a renaissance.
New algorithms, data reduction methods and survey modes are actively
developed to handle the EB-scale raw data streams produced and to
utilise the full potential of these new instruments.
As part of a large collaboration, our group at LMU is developing
commensal line intensity mapping and interferometric imaging using
Such interferometric scanning or on-the-fly (OTF) observations are
increasing the survey speed by removing the settle-and-slew overhead
while also enabling commensal single-dish intensity mapping, providing
a dramatic improvement in data acquisition efficiency.
However, the scanning motion of the antennae pointing relative to the
delay centre introduces smearing effects that need to be corrected
in the imaging process.
In particular, the smearing of the primary beam (PB) response
introduces flux-density errors in the interferometric images.
This project aims to model the smeared PB by measuring the flux-density
variation of thousands of sources detected in our pilot MeerKAT OTF
The developed PB models and software will be incorporated into our OTF
imaging pipeline, which we will use to reduce 100+ hours of MeerKAT
OTF data observed in the upcoming year by our collaboration.
2. Stars and planets
Multi-wavelength observations of star formation regions
(T. Preibisch firstname.lastname@example.org)
Students can carry out investigations as part of an ongoing project,
e.g., correlation of object lists in different wavelengths ranges
(from X-ray to the sub-mm regime).
3. Galaxies and AGN
Three-dimensional galaxies are often modeled using the Schwarzschild
One computes stellar orbits in a given gravitational potential and
superposes them to reproduce the available dataset.
The modeling of two-dimensional objects like galaxies with stellar
disks poses some yet unsolved questions.
How well can one compute the gravitational potential using spherical
What is the optimal amount of regularization?
How well can one describe real galaxies?
During the thesis project answers to these questions will be tested
Astronomers noticed more than 100 years ago that the galaxy
populations within dense galaxy clusters are different from those
in the surrounding low-density field, but the underlying reasons
Hierarchical structure formation leads dense clusters to form rather
late in the Universe and to continue the accretion of surrounding
material, including star forming spiral galaxies where through a
range of processes they are transformed into ellipticals or S0s.
Studies over the past decades have clarified the range of physical
processes that are likely contributing to this transformation, and
these include ram pressure stripping, mean field tidal stripping and
galaxy merging, among others.
We are using a new Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect selected
sample of galaxy clusters from SPT that extends to redshift
z ~ 2 together with data from the DES, Spitzer, and
Herschel to study these galaxy population transitions as a function
of cosmic time.
The goal of this project is to use the multi-band optical and
IR photometry to identify cluster galaxies and study the transition
in color and star formation rates as a function of radius from the
cluster center as well as a function of cosmic time and cluster mass.
Our dataset is uniquely suited for this study, because we have a well
understood sample of clusters extending over a broad redshift range
and a uniform photometric imaging dataset in the optical and IR over
large areas of the sky.
Exploring the dark side of galaxy formation and evolution using radio continuum data
(J. Mohr Joseph.Mohr@physik.lmu.de)
Among the many facets under investigation of the galaxy formation
and evolution puzzle, two old and still unanswered questions remain
at the core of our incomplete picture:
- How do galaxies grow their stellar mass over cosmic time?
Answering this question has proven difficult mainly because of the
uncertainties in estimating the on-going star formation for large,
representative galaxy samples.
The easily accessible ultra-violet (UV) restframe emission, in
principle a direct probe of the young short-lived massive stellar
populations, is in fact measuring only the small fraction of that
emission that has not been absorbed by the interstellar dust.
It thus needs to be corrected by factors that, depending on the
intrinsic galaxy properties, can vary by orders of magnitude.
- Why does star formation cease at a certain point during the
In the last decade many studies have agreed in assigning a relevant
role to nuclear activity (AGNs, due to massive black hole growth)
in affecting the galaxy star formation histories (SFHs).
In particular, once a major burst of star formation has eventually
exhausted the gas inside the galaxy immediately available for star
formation, the so-called “radio-mode feedback” is often
invoked as preventing the gas in the outer galaxy halo from cooling
and starting star formation again.
Deep radio surveys, conducted in association with multi-wavelength
observations, allow us to probe at the same time dust-unbiased star
formation and nuclear activity, and hence have become a fundamental
tool in the last decade for studying galaxy evolution.
This master project will focus on already available JVLA radio
continuum data in the deepest extra galactic fields in order to
obtain a dust-unbiased view of star formation over cosmic time
and a first-order estimate of radio-AGN feedback to be compared
to theoretical model expectations at different redshifts and halo
The observed bimodal distribution of local Universe galaxies in
star formation properties (from optical color-magnitude and stellar
mass-star formation rate diagrams) is due to the process of star
formation quenching, making once star forming spiral galaxies to
non/little star forming elliptical/S0 galaxies.
There are many possible processes responsible for this observed star
formation quenching, among which ram-pressure stripping is the dominant
mechanism in dense galaxy cluster environment.
(107 . . . 108 K)
(ne ~ 10−4 . . . 10−2 cm−3)
intracluster medium can strip cold gas from the spiral galaxy disk,
which eventually truncates star formation as the galaxy moves though
the cluster environment.
We have acquired ultraviolet data for a sample of galaxies undergoing
ram-pressure stripping (with tentacles of star formation along the
stripped tails with the galaxy disk resembling a jellyfish) where
the ongoing truncation of star formation can be directly studied
comparing with emission line diagnostic maps made from MUSE IFU data.
This project involves studying the star formation progression in a
galaxy undergoing ram-pressure stripping with indications of truncation
along the galaxy disk.
There are opportunities to collaborate with a larger team involved
in multiwavelength analysis of jellyfish galaxies.
4. Cosmology, large-scale structure, and gravitational lensing
The majority of galaxies in clusters are “red” galaxies (S0
or elliptical galaxies), i.e., galaxies with no ongoing star formation.
This makes them form a “red sequence” in color-magnitude
In multi-band photometric surveys (e.g., the Dark Energy Survey DES)
one sucessfully identifies clusters of galaxies by their red-sequence
galaxy population, and estimates the (photometric) redshifts for
clusters using the colors of their red galaxies.
The number of red galaxies of each cluster is used to define its
“richness” (a quantity strongly related to the total mass
of the cluster).
For many purposes in cosmology one would like to relate the
observationally identified “red sequence clusters” to
clusters numerically simulated within the framework of structure
For example, one would like to know how cluster mass and cluster
richness scales, what the scatter is, and how much dark matter
is associated with individual red galaxies (as a function of the
luminosity and position within the cluster).
The goal of this project is to apply the observers’
cluster-finding technique to simulated clusters and to derive a
catalog with cluster richness, their red-sequence member galaxies,
and dark matter halo masses of individual member galaxies.
These findings can then be compared to results from observations or
can be used to predict the outcome of ongoing and future observations.
One of the leading methods for studying the cosmic acceleration,
measuring neutrino masses and directly measuring the growth rate
of cosmic structures is through studies of the redshift and mass
distribution of uniformly selected samples of galaxy clusters.
A key element of these studies is constraining the masses of the
galaxy clusters using information from weak gravitational lensing.
The goal of this project is to use the available weak gravitational
lensing mass information from the Dark Energy Survey within
samples of galaxy clusters selected from the South Pole Telescope
Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect survey or the RASS (and soon from eROSITA!)
X-ray survey to study the cosmic acceleration, neutrino masses, and
the growth rate of cosmic structures.
- Understand the impact of surrounding large-scale structure and
miscentering on the weak-lensing mass estimates of galaxy clusters.
Application to real cluster sample with DES shear catalogs to
- Understand the impact of contaminating impacts due to X-ray
and radio AGN on the selection and cosmological analysis of galaxy
- Measure correlations among cluster observables in the X-ray,
SZE, and optical and study their impact on cosmological analyses.
Projects in the Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Artificial Intelligence Group
(Daniel Grün et al.)
Projects in the Physical Cosmology Group
(Jochen Weller et al.)
5. Computational and theoretical astrophysics
Research in the Computational Astrophysics Group (CAST) ranges from
the theoretical investigation of star and planet formation to studies
of processes on cosmological scales.
A variety of different, well-known numerical codes (such as Ramses,
Gadget, Sauron, Gandalf, Mocassin, and others) are used.
Primary investigations regard the formation, the structure, and
the evolution of protoplanetary disks, the formation of planetary
building blocks and planets, the relation between turbulence and phase
transitions in the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM), energetic
feedback processes, molecular cloud and star formation in galaxies, as
well as cosmological structure and galaxy formation and the interplay
between feedback processes, AGN, and galaxy evolution and their imprint
on the intergalactic medium (IGM) or the intercluster medium (ICM).
Thus, our group studies astrophysical processes on length scales
covering more than 14 orders of magnitude, from gigaparsec scales
of cosmological structures all the way down to sub-AU scales of dust
grains within protoplanetary disks.
It is now clear that small-scale processes like the condensation
of molecular clouds into stars, magnetic fields and the details of
heat transport as well as large-scale processes like gas infall from
the cosmic web into galaxies and environment are intimately coupled
and have to be investigated in a concerted effort.
The various past and ongoing projects within the CAST group cover
a link between the various scales and contribute to our understanding
of crucial aspects of the formation and evolution of stars and
protoplanetary disks, central black holes and AGNs, star-forming
regions and the ISM, galaxies and their IGM, galaxy clusters and the
ICM as well the large-scale structures in the universe.
They also also drive the continuous effort to develop and to apply
new numerical methods and the next generation of multi-scale codes
within the framework of numerical astrophysics.
Past and ongoing Bachelor’s and Master’s thesis projects
were always offered with respect to the individual strengths and
interests of the students and cover various areas in the field of
computational and theoretical astrophysics:
- Formation of large-scale cosmological structures (dark-matter
halos, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, role of black holes, magnetic
fields and non-thermal particles)
- Evolution and structure of the turbulent interstellar medium
(ISM physics, self-regulating star formation, formation of molecular
clouds, magnetic fields)
- Physics of galactic centers (active galactic nuclei, origin and
nature of the gas cloud G2 near the Galactic center)
- Formation of planets, stars, and stellar clusters (stars and
their influence on the surrounding protoplanetary disc, interstellar
matter, radiative transfer, dynamics of particles and planets in
- Application and development of numerical tools on parallel
CPUs and GPUs and visualization (particle-based
moving-mesh or meshless methods)
More detailed information on
ongoing and finished projects
as well as more detailed information on ongoing research can be
found on the web pages of the
Computational Astrophysics Group.
6. High-energy astrophysics
MAGIC is a system of two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric
Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) located at the Roque de los Muchachos
on the Canary island of La Palma.
It is operated by a collaboration of 270 astrophysicists from 13
The main science targets are the very high energy gamma-ray sources
such as AGN, Pulsar Wind Nebulae and Gamma-Ray Bursts.
When entering the Earth's atmosphere, such high-energy gamma rays
produce extensive air showers (EAS) composed primarily of positrons
Moving with superluminal speed in the atmosphere, they generate
MAGIC makes snapshots of EAS in Cherenkov light and characterises
the nature of the primary particles.
Stellar Intensity Interferometry (SII) was demonstrated to be a
powerful method to measure the size and shape of bright stars,
development of binary systems etc.
This idea has been recently revived due to the construction and
operation of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).
MAGIC is pursuing an SII programme with the existing two 17 m
telescopes and is working to expand it with the four 23 m diameter
LST/CTA telescopes located in the vicinity.
We are already producing high-quality scientific data and publications
Our aim is to move towards a very powerful constellation of telescopes
They should provide one of the best achievable angular resolutions
for measuring details of complex astrophysical sources in the sky.
You are expected to co-develop the SII, leading up to the configuration
of telescopes with the best angular resolution.
You will travel few times to La Palma to work at the experimental site.
We anticipate that along with particular science topics, you will
learn the state-of-the-art method in photon detection and participate
in the scientific life of MAGIC-LST (CTA) telescopes.
Our local science team consists of about 20 researchers including many
at early stages of their career working in a friendly and mutually
Gamma-ray observations allow us to study the most extreme cosmic
sources in the Universe.
These violent environments, which are not reproducible at Earth-based
laboratories, provide opportunities to study processes at the frontier
of known physics.
Our group tackles a wide range of questions related to astrophysics
and fundamental physics, such as probing cosmic-ray acceleration
processes and the search for the nature of Dark Matter.
Over 15 years of operations, Fermi-LAT is the preeminent instrument
for studying the high-energy universe in the MeV to GeV energy range.
It provides a rich data set ripe for discovery of new sources and
MAGIC is one of the current generation Imaging Atmospheric Telescopes
with high sensitivity for extended sources in the Galactic Plane.
The prototype of Large Size Telescope (LST) for the Cerenkov
Telescope Array (CTA) has completed construction and has started
partial scientific operations.
Over the next four years, three additional LSTs will be built,
providing unprecedented sensitivity to the gamma-ray universe.
The combination of three datasets allows for highest sensitivity in
studying the extreme environments within our Galaxy.
We seek Master’s students to perform their thesis work with the
primary focus on the analysis of Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, and/or LST-1 data
on Galactic sources such as Supernova Remnants and Galactic PeVatrons.
Although not required, experience in Python and C++ is highly desired.